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A History of Jeddah. The Gate to Mecca in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

Freitag, Ulrike – 2020

"Jeddah was characterised bv a cosmopolitan population, resulting from the city's close connection to maritime trade and its function as the port of Mecca, the holymost city of Islam. Locally, this was conceptualised as the responsibility of hospitality for the guests of God. The study traces different groups of migrants and follows their integration into the city's evolving urban fabric from the late Ottoman to early Saudi period. Its focus are the social, professional and religious institutions ordering life in the city and allowing newcomers to establish themselves. With increasing Western attempts to control the pilgrimage and establish their influence, the Ottoman authorities tightened immigration rules. However, only Saudi Arabian modernisation and large scale labour immigration fundamentally altered the immigration regime. The clear boundaries between nationals and foreigners increasingly limited possibilities for social integration. This notwithstanding, the history of hospitality, in connection with the urban space of old Jeddah, has become a key component of local pride and identity"--

A History of Jeddah
Cambridge University Press
Cambridge; New York